Black Mustard

Reviewed on 6/11/2021
Other Name(s):

Black Moutarde, Black Mustard Greens, Black Mustard Oil, Black Mustard Paste, Black Mustard Plaster, Black Mustard Powder, Black Mustard Seed, Brassica nigra, Graine de Moutarde Noire, Huile de Moutarde Noire, Mostaza Negra, Moutarde, Moutarde Noire, Moutarde Sauvage, Mustard, Pâte de Moutarde Noire, Plâtre de Moutarde Noire, Sénevé, Sénevé Noir, Sarshap, Sinapis nigra.


Black mustard is a plant. The seed and oil from the seed are used to make medicine.

Black mustard oil is used for the common cold, painful joints and muscles (rheumatism), and arthritis.

Black mustard seed is used for causing vomiting, relieving water retention (edema) by increasing urine production, and increasing appetite.

Some people make a paste by mixing ground black mustard seed with warm water. They pack the paste in cloth and apply the cloth directly to the skin as a “mustard plaster.” This preparation is used for treating pneumonia, pain and swelling (inflammation) of the lining of the lungs (pleurisy), arthritis, lower back pain (lumbago), and aching feet.

In foods, black mustard leaves (greens) are used in salads and other dishes.

Also in foods, black mustard seed is used as a spice and to flavor mustard condiment. There are approximately 40 different species of mustard plant. Three different types are generally used to make the mustard condiment. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is the most pungent. White mustard (Brassica alba) is the most mild and is used to make traditional American yellow mustard. Brown mustard (Brassica juncea) is dark yellow, has a pungent taste, and is used to make Dijon mustard. It is easier to harvest the brown mustard seed than the black mustard seed, so many mustard condiments now contain brown mustard seed instead of black mustard seed.

How does it work?

There is not enough information available to know how black mustard might work for medical conditions. Black mustard contains chemicals that might initially reduce pain when applied to the skin. But contact with the skin for too long might cause skin irritation and burning.


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Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Common cold.
  • Painful joints and muscles (rheumatism).
  • Arthritis.
  • Water retention (edema).
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Causing vomiting.
  • Pneumonia and painful lung conditions, when applied to the affected area as a “mustard plaster”.
  • Aching feet, when applied to the affected area as a “mustard plaster”.
  • Lower back pain, when applied to the affected area as a “mustard plaster”.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of black mustard for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Black mustard is LIKELY SAFE when eaten as part of a food such as mustard. But there is not enough information to know if it is safe to use black mustard as a medicine that is taken by mouth or applied to the skin.

Some side effects are known. Taking large amounts of black mustard seed by mouth can damage the throat and can also cause other serious side effects including heart failure, diarrhea, drowsiness, breathing difficulties, coma, and death. When applied to the skin, especially for a long time, black mustard can cause skin blisters and skin damage.


Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It's LIKELY UNSAFE to use black mustard in medicinal amounts if you are pregnant. Black mustard contains chemicals that might start your menstrual period and cause a miscarriage.

It's also best to avoid using black mustard as a medicine if you are breast-feeding. Not enough is known about the effects it might have on you or your nursing baby.

Diabetes: Black mustard might lower blood sugar levels when taken as a medicine. If you have diabetes and take medications to lower your blood sugar, adding black mustard might make your blood sugar drop too low. Monitor your blood sugar carefully.

Surgery: There is a concern that black mustard might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery when taken as a medicine. Stop using bitter melon at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black mustard might lower blood sugar levels when taken as a medicine. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking black mustard along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to be too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.


The appropriate dose of black mustard for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for black mustard. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

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Han, S. R., Lee, M. K., Lim, K. H., Yang, G. Y., Jeon, H. J., Ju, J. S., Yoon, Y. W., Kim, S. K., and Ahn, D. K. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats. Eur.J Pain 2008;12(3):361-370. View abstract.

Harbaum, B., Hubbermann, E. M., Zhu, Z., and Schwarz, K. Impact of fermentation on phenolic compounds in leaves of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) and Chinese leaf mustard (Brassica juncea coss). J Agric Food Chem 1-9-2008;56(1):148-157. View abstract.

Harris, J., Joules, C., Stanley, C., Thomas, P., and Clarke, R. W. Glutamate and tachykinin receptors in central sensitization of withdrawal reflexes in the decerebrated rabbit. Exp.Physiol 2004;89(2):187-198. View abstract.

Harris, N. C. and Ryall, R. W. Mustard oil excites but does not inhibit nociceptive dorsal horn neurones in the rat: a presumed effect on A-delta fibres. Br.J Pharmacol 1988;94(1):180-184. View abstract.

Hartwig, A. C., Mathias, S. I., Law, A. S., and Gebhart, G. F. Characterization and opioid modulation of inflammatory temporomandibular joint pain in the rat. J Oral Maxillofac.Surg. 2003;61(11):1302-1309. View abstract.

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Helyes, Z., Pinter, E., Nemeth, J., Sandor, K., Elekes, K., Szabo, A., Pozsgai, G., Keszthelyi, D., Kereskai, L., Engstrom, M., Wurster, S., and Szolcsanyi, J. Effects of the somatostatin receptor subtype 4 selective agonist J-2156 on sensory neuropeptide release and inflammatory reactions in rodents. Br.J Pharmacol 2006;149(4):405-415. View abstract.

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Ishikawa, T., Nakanishi, O., Funatsu, N., and Kameyama, H. Nerve growth factor inducer, 4-methyl catechol, potentiates central sensitization associated with acceleration of spinal glutamate release after mustard oil paw injection in rats. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 1999;19(5):587-596. View abstract.

Iwata, K., Takahashi, O., Tsuboi, Y., Ochiai, H., Hibiya, J., Sakaki, T., Yamaguchi, Y., and Sumino, R. Fos protein induction in the medullary dorsal horn and first segment of the spinal cord by tooth-pulp stimulation in cats. Pain 1998;75(1):27-36. View abstract.

Jain, S. K. and Agrawal, S. C. Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 1992;46(1):1-6. View abstract.

Jakab, A., Nagy, K., Heberger, K., Vekey, K., and Forgacs, E. Differentiation of vegetable oils by mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2002;16(24):2291-2297. View abstract.

Jancso, G., Pierau, F. K., and Sann, H. Mustard oil-induced cutaneous inflammation in the pig. Agents Actions 1993;39(1-2):31-34. View abstract.

Jarvenpaa, S., Lundberg-Niinisto, C., Spoof, L., Sjovall, O., Tyystjarvi, E., and Meriluoto, J. Effects of microcystins on broccoli and mustard, and analysis of accumulated toxin by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toxicon 2007;49(6):865-874. View abstract.

Jen, J. F., Lin, T. H., Huang, J. W., and Chung, W. C. Direct determination of sinigrin in mustard seed without desulfatation by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr.A 4-6-2001;912(2):363-368. View abstract.

Jha, N., Chaturvedi, S., Yadav, B. K., Karki, D. B., and Rai, B. K. Field investigaton of an outbreak of epidemic dropsy in eastern Nepal. Indian J Public Health 1999;43(2):87-88. View abstract.

Jham, G, Moser, B, Shah, S, Holser, R, Dhingra, O, Vaughn, S, Berhow, M, Winkler-Moser, J, Isbell, T, Holloway, R, Walter, E, Natalino, R, Anderson, J, and Stelly, David M. Wild Brazilian Mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2009;86(9):917-926.

Ji, G., Zhou, S., and Carlton, S. M. Intact Adelta-fibers up-regulate transient receptor potential A1 and contribute to cold hypersensitivity in neuropathic rats. Neuroscience 6-26-2008;154(3):1054-1066. View abstract.

Jiang, M. C. and Gebhart, G. F. Development of mustard oil-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Pain 1998;77(3):305-313. View abstract.

Jiao, D., Ho, C. T., Foiles, P., and Chung, F. L. Identification and quantification of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of allyl isothiocyanate in human urine after ingestion of mustard. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(6):487-492. View abstract.

Joardar, A. and Das, S. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation. Cell Mol.Neurobiol. 2007;27(8):973-983. View abstract.

Jordt, S. E., Bautista, D. M., Chuang, H. H., McKemy, D. D., Zygmunt, P. M., Hogestatt, E. D., Meng, I. D., and Julius, D. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1. Nature 1-15-2004;427(6971):260-265. View abstract.

Julien, P. White Mustard and Racahout des Arabes. Revue d'Histoire de la Pharmacie (France) 1993;40:155-180.

Jung, H. A., Woo, J. J., Jung, M. J., Hwang, G. S., and Choi, J. S. Kaempferol glycosides with antioxidant activity from Brassica juncea. Arch Pharm Res 2009;32(10):1379-1384. View abstract.

Juranek, I. and Lembeck, F. Evidence for the participation of glutamate in reflexes involving afferent, substance P-containing nerve fibres in the rat. Br.J Pharmacol 1996;117(1):71-78. View abstract.

Jyothi, T. C., Singh, S. A., and Rao, A. G. Conformation of Napin (Brassica juncea) in salts and monohydric alcohols: contribution of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. J Agric Food Chem 5-16-2007;55(10):4229-4236. View abstract.

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Karashima, Y., Prenen, J., Meseguer, V., Owsianik, G., Voets, T., and Nilius, B. Modulation of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1 by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate manipulators. Pflugers Arch 2008;457(1):77-89. View abstract.

Karashima, Y., Talavera, K., Everaerts, W., Janssens, A., Kwan, K. Y., Vennekens, R., Nilius, B., and Voets, T. TRPA1 acts as a cold sensor in vitro and in vivo. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci U.S.A 1-27-2009;106(4):1273-1278. View abstract.

Katamoto, H., Nishiguchi, S., Harada, K., Ueyama, I., Fujita, T., and Watanabe, O. Suspected Oriental mustard (Brassica juncea) intoxication in cattle. Vet.Rec. 8-18-2001;149(7):215-216. View abstract.

Kavli, G. and Moseng, D. Contact urticaria from mustard in fish-stick production. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17(3):153-155. View abstract.

Kesanakurti, D., Sareddy, G. R., Babu, P. P., and Kirti, P. B. Mustard NPR1, a mammalian IkappaB homologue inhibits NF-kappaB activation in human GBM cell lines. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun 12-18-2009;390(3):427-433. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Anti-oxidant effects of curry leaf, Murraya koenigii and mustard seeds, Brassica juncea in rats fed with high fat diet. Indian J Exp.Biol 1997;35(2):148-150. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Biochemical response in rats to the addition of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) and mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) to the diet. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1996;49(4):295-299. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Haematological & histological studies after curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) & mustard (Brassica juncea) feeding in rats. Indian J Med Res 1995;102:184-186. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Hypoglycemic action of Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) and Brassica juncea (mustard): mechanism of action. Indian J Biochem.Biophys. 1995;32(2):106-108. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Murraya koenigii and Brassica juncea--alterations on lipid profile in 1-2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis. Invest New Drugs 1996;14(4):365-369. View abstract.

Khan, B. A., Abraham, A., and Leelamma, S. Role of Murraya koenigii (curry leaf) and Brassica juncea (Mustard) in lipid peroxidation. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1996;40(2):155-158. View abstract.

Khater, H. F. and Shalaby, A. A. Potential of biologically active plant oils to control mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens, Diptera: Culicidae) from an Egyptian locality. Rev Inst.Med Trop.Sao Paulo 2008;50(2):107-112. View abstract.

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Kim, H. Y., Yokozawa, T., and Cho, E. J. Mustard leaf suppresses nitric oxide synthesis by mouse macrophages. J Nutr.Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2005;51(3):200-203. View abstract.

Kim, H. Y., Yokozawa, T., Cho, E. J., Cheigh, H. S., Choi, J. S., and Chung, H. Y. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea). Phytother.Res 2003;17(5):465-471. View abstract.

Kim, J. E., Jung, M. J., Jung, H. A., Woo, J. J., Cheigh, H. S., Chung, H. Y., and Choi, J. S. A new kaempferol 7-O-triglucoside from the leaves of Brassica juncea L. Arch Pharm Res 2002;25(5):621-624. View abstract.

Kim, M. G. and Lee, H. S. Growth-inhibiting activities of phenethyl isothiocyanate and its derivatives against intestinal bacteria. J Food Sci 2009;74(8):M467-M471. View abstract.

Kim, S. I., Yi, J. H., Tak, J. H., and Ahn, Y. J. Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Vet.Parasitol. 4-15-2004;120(4):297-304. View abstract.

Kimball, E. S., Palmer, J. M., D'Andrea, M. R., Hornby, P. J., and Wade, P. R. Acute colitis induction by oil of mustard results in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper GI transit in mice. Am.J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2005;288(6):G1266-G1273. View abstract.

Kimball, E. S., Prouty, S. P., Pavlick, K. P., Wallace, N. H., Schneider, C. R., and Hornby, P. J. Stimulation of neuronal receptors, neuropeptides and cytokines during experimental oil of mustard colitis. Neurogastroenterol.Motil. 2007;19(5):390-400. View abstract.

Kimball, E. S., Schneider, C. R., Wallace, N. H., and Hornby, P. J. Agonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 inhibit experimental colitis induced by oil of mustard and by dextran sulfate sodium. Am.J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2006;291(2):G364-G371. View abstract.

Kincaid, W., Neubert, M. J., Xu, M., Kim, C. J., and Heinricher, M. M. Role for medullary pain facilitating neurons in secondary thermal hyperalgesia. J Neurophysiol. 2006;95(1):33-41. View abstract.

Kohl, P. K. and Frosch, P. J. Irritant contact dermatitis induced by a mustard compress. Contact Dermatitis 1990;23(3):189-190. View abstract.

Kojima, M., Uchida, M., and Akahori, Y. [Studies on the volatile components of Wasabia japonica, Brassica juncea and Cocholearia armoracia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. I. Determination of low mass volatile components]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1973;93(4):453-459. View abstract.

Kojima, R., Doihara, H., Nozawa, K., Kawabata-Shoda, E., Yokoyama, T., and Ito, H. Characterization of two models of drug-induced constipation in mice and evaluation of mustard oil in these models. Pharmacology 2009;84(4):227-233. View abstract.

Koltzenburg, M. and McMahon, S. B. Plasma extravasation in the rat urinary bladder following mechanical, electrical and chemical stimuli: evidence for a new population of chemosensitive primary sensory afferents. Neurosci.Lett. 12-23-1986;72(3):352-356. View abstract.

Koltzenburg, M., Lundberg, L. E., and Torebjork, H. E. Dynamic and static components of mechanical hyperalgesia in human hairy skin. Pain 1992;51(2):207-219. View abstract.

Koltzenburg, M., Torebjork, H. E., and Wahren, L. K. Nociceptor modulated central sensitization causes mechanical hyperalgesia in acute chemogenic and chronic neuropathic pain. Brain 1994;117 ( Pt 3):579-591. View abstract.

Kukreja, R. S., Dutta, B. N., Sarkar, A. K., and Chakravarti, R. N. Effect of mustard & peanut oil on regression of experimentally induced aortic & coronary atherosclerosis of monkeys. Indian J Med Res 1984;80:212-217. View abstract.

Kumar, A., D'Souza, S. S., Tickoo, S., Salimath, B. P., and Singh, H. B. Antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activities of allyl isothiocyanate inhibit ascites tumor growth in vivo. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2009;8(1):75-87. View abstract.

Kumar, A., Husain, F., Das, M., and Khanna, S. K. An out-break of epidemic dropsy in the Barabanki District of Uttar Pradesh, India: a limited trial for the scope of antioxidants in the management of symptoms. Biomed.Environ Sci 1992;5(3):251-256. View abstract.

Kumar, S. Outbreak of dropsy in India linked with adulterated mustard oil. Lancet 1998;352(9131):884.

Kurki-Helasmo, K. and Meriluoto, J. Microcystin uptake inhibits growth and protein phosphatase activity in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. Toxicon 1998;36(12):1921-1926. View abstract.

Laird, J. M., Martinez-Caro, L., Garcia-Nicas, E., and Cervero, F. A new model of visceral pain and referred hyperalgesia in the mouse. Pain 2001;92(3):335-342. View abstract.

Laird, J. M., Olivar, T., Roza, C., De Felipe, C., Hunt, S. P., and Cervero, F. Deficits in visceral pain and hyperalgesia of mice with a disruption of the tachykinin NK1 receptor gene. Neuroscience 2000;98(2):345-352. View abstract.

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Leanizbarrutia, I., Munoz, D., and Fernandez, de Corres. Cutaneous allergy to mustard. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17(4):262-263. View abstract.

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