- What Is
- General Principles
- Implant Types
What is internal fixation?
Internal fixation involves setting and stabilizing the fractured bones by cutting open the skin. The bones are realigned to their normal position. Internal fixation uses special implants such as plates, screws, nails, and wires, which hold together the corrected bones.
The advantages of internal fixation are as follows:
- Shorter hospital stay
- Allows the patients to return to the function earlier
- Reduces the chances of improper healing
- Prevents the healing of bone in the improper position
The implants are usually made of stainless steel, titanium, cobalt, or chrome, which are sturdy and strong. Implants are generally compatible with the body and hardly cause any allergic reactions.
What are the general principles of internal fixation?
The general principles of internal fixation are as follows:
- Realignment of the bone fracture to the normal alignment
- Preservation of the blood supply
- Stable internal fixation
- Faster healing for pain-free mobilization of the joints and muscle
- Minimized risk of complications
- Full restoration of function
Stable fixation involves fixation that prevents the movement of the fractured fragments.
Compression on the fractured bone produces friction that prevents the displacement of the fractured fragments and holds it in place. Compression also helps in maintaining a close contact between the fragment surfaces.
The general purposes of implants are
- To provide short-term support
- To maintain alignment during fracture healing
- To allow for rehabilitation
What are the different implants used during internal fixation?
The different implants used for internal fixation include the following:
- Plates: Internal splints used to hold the broken bone, they are fixed to the bone with screws. They may be left in place for healing or may be removed in selective cases.
- Screws: Most commonly used for internal fixation, they are available in different designs and sizes for the bones of different sizes. They can be used alone or with plates, rods, or nails. They may be left inside for healing or removed.
- Rods or nails: For certain fractures of the thighbones or shinbones, rods are inserted through the hollow center of the bone. Screws at the end of the rod prevent the fracture from rotating and keep the rods in place.
- Wires or pins: Fractures that are too small to fix by screws usually require wires to pin them to the bone. They generally treat small fractures of the hands or foot if used alone. Wires can be used in conjunction with other implants.
What are the complications of internal fixation?
The complications of internal fixation are
- implant failure,
- refracture and
- nonunion (arrest in the fracture repair process).
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Medscape Medical Reference
Top What Are Principles of Internal Fixation Related Articles
Bone Density ScanBone density scanning measures bone mineral density, which helps a doctor decide whether a person is at increased risk of an osteoporosis-related fracture. The following risk factors may suggest the need for bone density scanning: advanced age, poor health, low body weight or thin stature, personal history of fracture as an adult, low physical activity, RA, and use of birth control pills.
Broken BoneA broken bone is a fracture. There are different types of fractures, such as:
- vertebral compression,
- compound, and
Symptoms of a broken bone include pain at the site of injury, swelling, and bruising around the area of injury. Treatment of a fracture depends on the type and location of the injury.
Broken BonesBroken bones are a common type of injury. Bones are some of the hardest tissues in the body, but they can break when they are stressed. Osteoporosis and cancer may cause bone fractures. The broken bone needs immediate medical treatment.
Fractured Spine PictureFractures of the spine (vertebra) can cause severe "band-like" pain that radiates around from the back to the side of the body. See a picture of Fractured Spine and learn more about the health topic.
Growth Plate Fractures and InjuriesGrowth plate fractures and injuries occur in the area growing tissue near the end of the long bones of children and teens. Both boys and girls are susceptible to growth plate fracture and injury. Common causes include: a fall while playing sports or playing on furniture or playground equipment, overuse injury from sports, injuries from competitive sports, child abuse, frostbite, and juvenile arthritis. Growth plate fracture and injury are classified into five categories according to the Salter-Harris Classification.
What Are Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Femoral Fractures in Adults?In certain types of femur fractures (displaced fractures), the trauma knocks the broken thigh bone pieces out of alignment. Femur fractures that occur near the knee (distal femur) are known as distal femoral fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a common surgery to fasten the broken femur together with hardware that allows it to heal correctly.
What Are Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Distal Femoral Fractures in Children?Femur fractures that occur to the part of the femur near the knee (distal femur) are known as distal femoral fractures. Because the distal femur has a growth plate, any fracture in this part of the femur in children may stunt the affected leg. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) fastens the pieces of the broken femur together with hardware so it heals correctly.